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细密机械加工的方法和优势
阅读次数:412  更新时间:2020-07-21

机械制造技术从提高精度和生产率两个方面迅速发展,就提高生产率而言,提高自动化程度是各国致力发展的方向。近年来,细密零件加工从CNC向CIMS快速发展,并在一定范围内从提高精度方面,从细密加工到超细密加工得到了应用,这也是世界主要发达国家的发展方向。

(1 )细(xi)密机械加(jia)工方(fang)法

根据加(jia)工(gong)方法的机(ji)理和(he)特点,细(xi)密加(jia)工(gong)可分(fen)为刀具(ju)切削加(jia)工(gong),磨料(liao)加(jia)工(gong),特种加(jia)工(gong)和(he)复(fu)合加(jia)工(gong)四(si)大类(lei)

随着加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)技术的(de)发(fa)展,出(chu)现(xian)了许多新的(de)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)机理(li),因此在细(xi)密零件(jian)(jian)(jian)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong),特别(bie)是在微细(xi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中,根据零件(jian)(jian)(jian)成(cheng)形(xing)(xing)机理(li)和特点(dian),分(fen)为(wei)去除(chu)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)、结合(he)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)和变形(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)三大类,去除(chu)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)又称(cheng)为(wei)分(fen)离加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong),是利用(yong)力、热电(dian)光等(deng)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)方法从工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)去除(chu)部(bu)分(fen)材料,如(ru)切削、磨削、电(dian)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)等(deng)。结合(he)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)是利用(yong)理(li)化(hua)方法在工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)表面(mian)上附(fu)着沉(chen)积注人(ren)渗(shen)入、熔接(jie)一层不同材料,如(ru)电(dian)镀、气相沉(chen)积、氧化(hua)、渗(shen)碳,粘(zhan)接(jie)、熔接(jie)等(deng),变形(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)是利用(yong)力、热、分(fen)子(zi)运动等(deng)手段使工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)产生变形(xing)(xing),改(gai)变其(qi)尺寸、形(xing)(xing)状和性(xing)能(neng),如(ru)铸(zhu)造、锻压(ya)等(deng),可见加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)概念(nian)已突破传统的(de)去除(chu)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)手段,具有(you)堆(dui)积、生长(zhang)、变形(xing)(xing)等(deng)特色,同时强调了表面(mian)处理(li),形(xing)(xing)成(cheng)了表面(mian)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)技术。

( 2 )细密机械加工的技术和工艺优势

细密机械(xie)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)切削(xue)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)与无房(fang)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)相比,切削(xue)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)优点(dian)首先(xian)在(zai)(zai)于,既(ji)有(you)(you)很(hen)高的(de)(de)(de)(de)材(cai)料(liao)切除率(lv),又有(you)(you)良好(hao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)经济性,与激(ji)光等离子加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)相比,这(zhei)种工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)目前只有(you)(you)供(gong)应(ying)很(hen)大的(de)(de)(de)(de)能(neng)(neng)量(liang),才能(neng)(neng)达(da)到较高的(de)(de)(de)(de)材(cai)料(liao)切除率(lv)。另一方面,加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)出的(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件能(neng)(neng)否达(da)到尺寸和形(xing)状(zhuang)精(jing)度要求尚存问题(ti),无屑压力(li)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)主要用(yong)于大批(pi)生(sheng)产,往(wang)往(wang)需(xu)要后序切削(xue)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong),以获得(de)合(he)格(ge)的(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件形(xing)状(zhuang),因此(ci)机械(xie)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)主要优点(dian)是能(neng)(neng)使(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件达(da)到较高的(de)(de)(de)(de)精(jing)度,细密机械(xie)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)应(ying)用(yong)广泛(fan),特别是伴随小批(pi)量(liang)生(sheng)产发展(zhan)趋势(shi),对工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件的(de)(de)(de)(de)形(xing)状(zhuang)和尺寸精(jing)度要求越来(lai)越高,为细密机械(xie)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)开辟了新的(de)(de)(de)(de)更加(jia)(jia)(jia)广泛(fan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)领域。使(shi)用(yong)车床自然要进行各种车削(xue)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong),但还应(ying)注意到,钻削(xue)、铁削(xue)、魔削(xue)以及(ji)切步等加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)过程都可集(ji)中在(zai)(zai)一台车床上完成(cheng)(cheng)(工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序集(ji)成(cheng)(cheng))的(de)(de)(de)(de)趋势(shi),这(zhei)就是现在(zai)(zai)发展(zhan)起来(lai)的(de)(de)(de)(de)车铣加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)地点(dian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)复合(he)机床的(de)(de)(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)方法。

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