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机械加工工艺基础知识
阅读次数:358  更新时间:2020-07-21

机(ji)械(xie)加工(gong)工(gong)艺(yi)的来源在(zai)机(ji)加工(gong)生产过程(cheng)(cheng)中(zhong),凡(fan)是改变生产对象的形(xing)状、尺寸(cun)、位(wei)置和性质等,使其(qi)成(cheng)(cheng)为成(cheng)(cheng)品或者半成(cheng)(cheng)品的过程(cheng)(cheng)称为机(ji)械(xie)加工(gong)工(gong)艺(yi)过程(cheng)(cheng)。

机械加工(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)过程又可分为铸造(zao)、锻造(zao)、冲(chong)压、焊接、机械加工(gong)(gong)、装配等工(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)过程;


机(ji)械制造工(gong)(gong)艺(yi)过程一般是指零件的(de)机(ji)械加工(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)艺(yi)过程和机(ji)器(qi)的(de)装配工(gong)(gong)艺(yi)过程的(de)总和制订机(ji)械加工(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)艺(yi)过程,必须确定该工(gong)(gong)件要经过几道(dao)工(gong)(gong)序以及工(gong)(gong)序进行的(de)先(xian)后顺序,仅列出主要工(gong)(gong)序名称及其加工(gong)(gong)顺序的(de)简略工(gong)(gong)艺(yi)过程,称为工(gong)(gong)艺(yi)路线。

工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)路(lu)线(xian)的(de)(de)拟定(ding)是(shi)制(zhi)定(ding)工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)过(guo)程的(de)(de)总体(ti)布局,主要任务是(shi)选择各个(ge)表面的(de)(de)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)方法,确(que)定(ding)各个(ge)表面的(de)(de)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)顺序,以及整(zheng)个(ge)工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)过(guo)程中工(gong)(gong)(gong)序数(shu)目的(de)(de)多少等。工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)路(lu)线(xian)拟定(ding)须遵循一定(ding)的(de)(de)原则。

一、拟定(ding)机加工件工艺路线的原则(ze):

1、先(xian)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)基准(zhun)(zhun)面(mian):零件在加工(gong)(gong)(gong)过程中,作(zuo)为(wei)(wei)(wei)定位基准(zhun)(zhun)的(de)表(biao)面(mian)应首先(xian)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)出来(lai),以(yi)便尽(jin)快为(wei)(wei)(wei)后续工(gong)(gong)(gong)序的(de)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)提供精基准(zhun)(zhun)。称(cheng)为(wei)(wei)(wei)“基准(zhun)(zhun)先(xian)行”。


2、划分(fen)(fen)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)阶段(duan)(duan):加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)质量(liang)(liang)要(yao)求高的表面,都划分(fen)(fen)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)阶段(duan)(duan),一般可(ke)分(fen)(fen)为(wei)粗(cu)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)、半精加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)和精加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)三个阶段(duan)(duan)。主(zhu)要(yao)是为(wei)了保证加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)质量(liang)(liang);有利于(yu)合理(li)使用设备;便于(yu)安(an)排(pai)热处理(li)工(gong)(gong)(gong)序;以及便于(yu)时发现毛坯(pi)缺陷等(deng)。

3、先面(mian)后孔(kong)(kong):对于(yu)箱体、支架和连杆等零(ling)件应先加(jia)工(gong)平(ping)面(mian)后加(jia)工(gong)孔(kong)(kong)。这样就(jiu)可以以平(ping)面(mian)定(ding)位(wei)加(jia)工(gong)孔(kong)(kong),保证平(ping)面(mian)和孔(kong)(kong)的(de)位(wei)置精度,而且对平(ping)面(mian)上的(de)孔(kong)(kong)的(de)加(jia)工(gong)带来方便。

4、光(guang)整(zheng)加(jia)工(gong):主要表面(mian)的(de)(de)光(guang)整(zheng)加(jia)工(gong)(如研磨(mo)、珩(heng)磨(mo)、精磨(mo)\滚压加(jia)工(gong)等),应放在工(gong)艺路(lu)线(xian)最后(hou)阶段(duan)进行(xing),加(jia)工(gong)后(hou)的(de)(de)表面(mian)光(guang)洁度在Ra0.8um以(yi)上,轻微(wei)的(de)(de)碰撞都会损坏表面(mian);


在日本、德国等(deng)国家,在光整加(jia)工后,都要用(yong)绒布进(jin)行保护(hu),绝对(dui)不准用(yong)手或其(qi)它物件(jian)直接接触(chu)工件(jian),以(yi)免光整加(jia)工的表(biao)面(mian),由于工序间(jian)的转(zhuan)运和安装而受到(dao)损伤。

二、拟定机加(jia)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)工(gong)(gong)艺路(lu)线的其他(ta)原(yuan)则(ze):

上述为工序安排的一般情况。有些具体情况可(ke)按下列(lie)原则(ze)处理。

1、、为(wei)了(le)保证加(jia)工(gong)精(jing)(jing)度,粗、精(jing)(jing)加(jia)工(gong)最好分开进(jin)行。因为(wei)粗加(jia)工(gong)时,切削(xue)量(liang)大,工(gong)件所受切削(xue)力、夹紧力大,发热量(liang)多,以(yi)及加(jia)工(gong)表面有较显著的(de)加(jia)工(gong)硬(ying)化现象,工(gong)件内(nei)部(bu)存在着较大的(de)内(nei)应力;

如(ru)果粗(cu)、粗(cu)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)连(lian)续(xu)进行,则精(jing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)后的(de)零(ling)件(jian)精(jing)度会(hui)因为应(ying)力的(de)重新(xin)分布而很快(kuai)丧(sang)失。对于(yu)某些加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)精(jing)度要求高的(de)零(ling)件(jian)。在(zai)粗(cu)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)之后和精(jing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)之前(qian),还应(ying)安排低温退火或时效(xiao)处理工(gong)序来消除内应(ying)力。


2、合理地选用(yong)设备。粗(cu)(cu)加(jia)工(gong)主要是切掉大部分(fen)加(jia)工(gong)余量,并不要求(qiu)有较(jiao)高的加(jia)工(gong)精(jing)(jing)度,所以粗(cu)(cu)加(jia)工(gong)应在功率较(jiao)大、精(jing)(jing)度不太高的机床(chuang)(chuang)上进行(xing),精(jing)(jing)加(jia)工(gong)工(gong)序则要求(qiu)用(yong)较(jiao)高精(jing)(jing)度的机床(chuang)(chuang)加(jia)工(gong)。粗(cu)(cu)、精(jing)(jing)加(jia)工(gong)分(fen)别在不同的机床(chuang)(chuang)上加(jia)工(gong),既能充分(fen)发挥设备能力,又能延长(zhang)精(jing)(jing)密(mi)机床(chuang)(chuang)的使用(yong)寿命(ming)。

3、在机(ji)械加工工艺路线中,常安排(pai)(pai)有热(re)处理(li)工序。热(re)处理(li)工序位置的安排(pai)(pai)如(ru)下(xia):为改(gai)善金属的切削(xue)加工性能,如(ru)退火、正火、调质等,一(yi)般安排(pai)(pai)在机(ji)械加工前进行。

为(wei)消除内应力(li),如时效处理(li)、调质(zhi)处理(li)等,一般安(an)排在粗加工之(zhi)后,精加工之(zhi)前进行(xing)。为(wei)了提(ti)高零件的机械性能,如渗碳(tan)、淬火(huo)、回火(huo)等,一般安(an)排在机械加工之(zhi)后进行(xing)。


如热处理后有(you)较大(da)的(de)变形,还须安排(pai)最终加(jia)工(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)序 拟(ni)定机加(jia)工(gong)(gong)零(ling)件(jian)(jian)的(de)工(gong)(gong)艺(yi)过程时,由(you)于零(ling)件(jian)(jian)的(de)生产类型不(bu)同,所采(cai)用的(de)加(jia)方(fang)法、机床设备、工(gong)(gong)夹量(liang)具、毛坯及对工(gong)(gong)人的(de)技术(shu)要(yao)求等(deng),都(dou)有(you)很大(da)的(de)不(bu)同。

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